PPX

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Overview[edit]

PPX GitHub

The PPX language feature provides a new API for syntactic extensions in OCaml. PPX uses attributes to allow type-driven code generation, extension nodes for custom constructs and quoted strings for insertion of code fragments in unrelated syntax. There are some useful ppx_tools developed by Lexifi that make working with PPX easier. They have the following ocamfind libraries if you opam install ppx_tools:

ppx_metaquot[edit]

A ppx filter to help writing programs which manipulate the Parsetree, by allowing the programmer to use concrete syntax for expressions creating Parsetree fragments and patterns deconstructing Parsetree fragments. See the top of ppx_metaquot.ml for a description of the supported extensions.

Usage:

ocamlfind -c -package ppx_tools.metaquot my_ppx_code.ml

rewriter[edit]

A utility to test ppx rewriters that runs the rewriter on user-provided code and returns the result.

Usage:

ocamlfind ppx_tools/rewriter ./my_ppx_rewriter sample.ml

See the integrated help message for more details:

ocamlfind ppx_tools/rewriter -help

Ast_mapper_class[edit]

This module implements an API similar to Ast_mapper from the compiler-libs, i.e. a generic mapper from Parsetree to Parsetree implemeting a deep identity copy, which can be customized with a custom behavior for each syntactic category. The difference with Ast_mapper is that Ast_mapper_class implements the open recursion using a class.

dumpast[edit]

This tool parses fragments of OCaml code (or entire source files) and dump the resulting internal Parsetree representation. Intended uses:

  • Help to learn about the OCaml Parsetree structure and how it corresponds to OCaml source syntax.
  • Create fragments of Parsetree to be copy-pasted into the source code of syntax-manipulating programs (such as ppx rewriters).

Usage:

ocamlfind ppx_tools/dumpast -e "1 + 2"

The tool can be used to show the Parsetree representation of small fragments of syntax passed on the command line (-e for expressions, -p for patterns, -t for type expressions) or for entire .ml/mli files. The standard -pp and -ppx options are supported, but only applied on whole files. The tool has further option to control how location and attribute fields in the Parsetree should be displayed.

genlifter[edit]

This tool generates a virtual "lifter" class for one or several OCaml type constructors. It does so by loading the .cmi files which define those types. The generated lifter class exposes one method to "reify" type constructors passed on the command-line and other type constructors accessible from them. The class is parametrized over the target type of the reification, and it must provide method to deal with basic types (int, string, char, int32, int64, nativeint) and data type builders (record, constr, tuple, list, array). As an example, calling:

ocamlfind ppx_tools/genlifter -I +compiler-libs Location.t

produces the following class:

class virtual ['res] lifter =
  object (this)
    method lift_Location_t : Location.t -> 'res=
      fun
        { Location.loc_start = loc_start; Location.loc_end = loc_end;
          Location.loc_ghost = loc_ghost }
         ->
        this#record "Location.t"
          [("loc_start", (this#lift_Lexing_position loc_start));
          ("loc_end", (this#lift_Lexing_position loc_end));
          ("loc_